History of Wyoming

Volume I

Charles Griffin Coutant

1899








PREFACE.

    In the preparation of this work I have endeavored to trace the early explorers who came to Wyoming. It will be observed that, with a single exception, every account given is based upon authentic history; the exception being the chapter devoted to "Spanish Occupation." While it must be admitted that these traditions are reasonable and interesting, I have deemed it better to utilize only a small portion of the Spanish claims. It would have been possible to have gone back to 1591 and traced the expedition of Don Juan de Onate from Mexico through Colorado and the northwest. It is believed that he explored the South and North Platte and if he did he must have reached Wyoming. While interesting speculations might be indulged in regarding numerous Spanish expeditions to the north, I have refrained from this for the reason that these are tradition and not history. The more modern explorations and occupations are quite as interesting as those of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The searcher after facts will find many surprises in regard to the early occupation of this country by white men. When Robert Stuart passed down the Sweetwater and North Platte in 1812-13, he met Dornin and Roi, two white traders, not far below Grand Island on the Platte River. At that early date there were many white trappers in this part of the west. John B. Sarpey, his brother Peter A. Sarpey, Godfrey Gerry and Elbridge Gerry, two brothers, came during the twenties and remained permanently. The Gerrys were grandsons of Elbridge Gerry, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. I have every reason to believe that Manuel Lisa's trappers also visited eastern Wyoming as early as 1809. The Chouteau brothers of St. Louis sent their men into this part of the west at an early date, that is previous to 1815. Just what time they reached the upper waters of the Platte, it is impossible to say with any degree of certainty. Desiring to confine this work to matters of known record, I have carefully avoided entering the realm of tradition.
    The fur trading period forms a distinct epoch in the history of Wyoming. The prosecution of this business, to a large extent, changed the conditions of the Indians, the white men and the country. Few of the great leaders in the fur trade cared to interest themselves in explorations. Previous to 1832 only General W. H. Ashley, of all the fur traders and trappers, took an interest in exploring the country. Following this renowned leader, came the first official explorer, Captain B. L. E. Bonneville. Much care has been taken to point out the official character of this, the first expedition to enter Wyoming under instructions of the government. Irving's charming story of Captain Bonneville, to some extent, was regarded as a romance at the time of its publication, but I hope I have succeeded in showing that the expedition was intended to accomplish a scientific and useful purpose. Because of the official character of Captain Bonneville, I have made copious extracts from his report and it must be admitted that his investigations in this country form a reliable part of our early history. Fremont came ten years later and the scientific nature of his work in this section, as well as its high official character and importance, has demanded at my hands no less space than is accorded it.
    Great pains have been taken to search out all that relates to the Overland trail, including the depredations committed by Indians along this famous highway, the Oregon, Mormon and California emigration, the establishing of the mail line across the mountains, the starting of the Pony Express, the building of the telegraph line and all the incidents of a public nature which contribute to the history of the times. The Indian wars which followed are covered by official reports, which have been used and which form the basis of the history of all military operations connected with the protection of emigrants.
    I make no claim that this history is entirely free from error, but I will assure the reader that every precaution has been taken in its preparation, and, as far as possible, dates, incidents and circumstances have been secured from official reports and from other reliable sources.
    The illustrations in this volume, for the most part, have intrinsic value, and some of them have been secured with difficulty. The portrait of Captain B. L. E. Bonneville was kindly furnished me by the Hon. N. P. Langford. That of Father De Smet was secured through the kindness of Bishop Lenihan. T. Jeff Carr presented the portrait of General Connor. These are rare portraits and difficult to obtain at this late day. Most of the illustrations along the Overland trail are by the Wyoming artist, M. D. Houghton, who produced them after much study and investigation. They are not mere ideal drawings, but were made with the assistance of pioneers who took the trouble to visit, with the artist, the locality, and explain the forts, buildings, bridges, etc. These drawings have stood the test of critical examinations on the part of many old timers who were familiar with the appearance of everything along the Overland road in the old days.
    This work will be completed in three volumes, each of which will have a table of contents, and the last book will contain a full index covering the subjects treated upon in the three volumes and these subjects will be subdivided and indexed for the convenience of those in search of information. The index will also give names, battles, incidents and all matter connected with the history of the State, so that the reader will be enabled to find, without delay, any subject, incident or name mentioned in the work.
    I owe it to myself to say that the undertaking has grown on my hands and has become of greater magnitude than was contemplated. Other states have histories that simply relate to events which are a part only of their occupation and settlement; while Wyoming was the highway where converged all roads leading across the plains to the territories beyond. This made our State the theater of bloody wars from the time of the discovery of South Pass, for more than seventy years. Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado each have histories filled with thrilling tales of the border; while our State had to bear the concentrated warfare engendered in the territories named. Our mountain passes afforded opportunity for ambush suited to the character of the savage tribes who disputed the passage of white men through the country. This holds good from the earliest record of trappers and traders, down through the emigrant days, the building of the railroad, and only ended when the government succeeded in utterly crushing the red warriors. This volume covers many startling situations and yet the happenings of the territorial period, which are told in the second volume, are no less dramatic. This is now in preparation and will be completed in a few months. It opens with the history of the founding of Cheyenne, the organization of Laramie County, the founding of Laramie City, the organization of Albany and other counties, together with the commencement of the Territorial Government. These events were intended for the first volume, but a proper division of the matter, after it was prepared forced me to assign these subjects to the second volume. By this change a large number of illustrations, which go with the matter mentioned, are left out of this volume, but will appear in the next.

THE AUTHOR.

INTRODUCTION.

BY JUDGE J. H. HAYFORD.

    Having been one of the earliest pioneers in Wyoming, the oldest journalist in the State, being intimately acquainted with the author, having had free access to the advance sheets of this history during all its preparation; is my apology for accepting an invitation to write a brief introduction to this great work.
    It is fortunate for the State that the task of writing its history has fallen into the hands of one so well qualified and equipped for the undertaking as C. G. Coutant. From his youth he has engaged in literary work, for many years connected with the Metropolitan Press of New York City, by which he was detailed to examine proposed railroad routes across the continent, and later he followed along the lines of the great trans-continental railways during the period of their construction. Since the year 1859 he has been familiar with all parts of the Rocky Mountain country and been personally acquainted with many of the noted pioneers. The events which make up the history of Wyoming, have to a greater or less extent been familiar to him from his boyhood. These circumstances and his literary experience have especially qualified him to write the story of Wyoming's past.
    The public can never know or realize the vast amount of travel, research, experience and hard work which was necessary in going back into the misty past to gather from tradition, from early explorers, from official data contained in the War Department; as well as the investigation of personal adventures of individuals, all necessary in the production of a work of this character. It was truly a Herculean task. It has been pioneer work. No history of Wyoming had ever been written. The author has felt an overwhelming sense of responsibility of the task in writing a history which is to be a record, not only for this, but for coming generations. It must be accurate and in every way reliable and it is this that made the undertaking laborious and difficult. This experienced writer and searcher after facts has done his work with a most scrupulous and conscientious regard to accuracy in every particular. The conclusions drawn from the facts of history are given fairly and impartially, without flattery on the one hand or censoriousness on the other.
    The work will be found to be, not only reliable history of our State, but more intensely and thrillingly interesting than any romance of the period. The hardships, privations and hair-breadth escapes of the pioneers, the adventures of the hunters and trappers of a century ago and the Indian wars of later times are all graphically and accurately written out. The work, when completed, will be of the greatest value and of the most absorbing interest, not only to the pioneers and citizens generally of the State, but to coming generations and to the whole country. Let us all hope and pray that Mr. Coutant may live to complete this lasting monument To his honorable and useful labors of a lifetime.

HISTORY OF WYOMING.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

Grand Possibilities - Mineral Wealth - Backbone Of The Continent - Fountain Head Of Mighty Rivers - Boundary Of Wyoming - Names Of Rivers And Mountains.

CHAPTER II.

SPANISH OCCUPATION.

The Claims Of The Spaniards Regarding The Northwest - What Different Writers Say - Where Did The White Blood Of The Mandans Come From? - Relics Op Iron Tools Found In Northern Wyoming And Montana - Evidences Of Mining And Agriculture Carried On Probably In The Seventeenth Century - The Subject Referred To Future Historians.

CHAPTER III.

FRENCH CANADIAN EXPLORATIONS.

The De La Verendryes Lead An Expedition From Canada To The Headwaters Of The Mississippi Across To The Missouri Into The Yellowstone And Wind River Countries - Turned Back By The Shoshones Who Persuade The Explorers That They Will Be Killed By The Sioux At South Pass - Eleven Years Spent In The Wilderness - Return To Montreal - Second Expedition Is Prevented By The Death Of De La Verendrye - Unprincipled Politicians Rob The De La Verendrye Family And Get Their Hands In The Coffers Of The King - Fur Trade Under English Ownership Of Canada - American Revolution Leads To Great Changes In The Fur Trade.

CHAPTER IV.

THE FIRST AMERICAN EXPLORERS.

History Of The Western Course Of Empire - Thomas Jefferson Becomes The Leader And Finally Succeeds In His Cherished Scheme Of Sending An Expedition Up The Headwaters Of The Missouri To Search For A Gateway Through The Rocky Mountains - The Lewis And Clark Expedition - They Winter At The Mandan Village On The Upper Missouri In 1804 - In 1805 Spend The Winter At The Mouth of The Columbia - Return To St. Louis In 1806.

CHAPTER V.

THE FAMOUS JOHN COLTER.

The First American To Enter Wyoming - A Member Of The Lewis And Clark Expedition - Remains In The Vicinity Of The YelLowstone From 1806 To 1810 - He Traps Along The Big Horn, Big Wind River, And Crosses The Range To The Pacific Slope In 1807 - Returns By Way Of The Yellowstone National Park, Of Which He Was The Discoverer - His Adventure With The Blackfeet - A Race For Life - Relates His Story To Capt. Clark, Bradbury And Others.

CHAPTER VI.

EZEKIEL WILLIAMS PARTY IN WYOMING.

They Follow Up The Yellowstone And Are Attacked By Blackfeet - Cross Over To The Big Horn And Go South - Reach The Sweetwater - Another Attack By Indians - Retreat South Across The Laramie Plains And Reach The Headwaters Of The South Platte - Comanches Attack The Party And Kill All But Three - Williams Returns To St. Louis And The Two Others To Southern California - The Leader Again Visits The Sweetwater In 1809.

CHAPTER VII.

THE ASTORIA EXPEDITION.

The Tonquin Sails For The Mouth Of The Columbia - Wilson P. Hunt Organizes A Land Expedition And Goes Up The Missouri - The Party Reaches The Country Which Is Now Wyoming - Numerous Attempts Made To Cross The Big Horn Mountains - Finally Ascend The Middle Fork Of The Powder River And Reach The No Wood - Journey Up The Big Horn And Big Wind Rivers - Cross Sheridan Pass To The Headwaters Of Green River - First View Of The Grand Tetons - Crossing The Green River Valley, They Reach The Headwaters Of The Columbia.

CHAPTER VIII.

ASTORIANS IN WYOMING.

Hunt And His Party Follow Down The Mad (snake) River - They Reach Henry's Fort - Build Canoes And Attempt The Further Journey By Water - Three Hundred And Forty Miles Below, Again Take To The Land - Great Sufferings Of The Party Through Hunger And Cold - At Last Reach The Falls Of The Columbia - Balance Of The Journey Made By Canoes - Arrival At Astoria.

CHAPTER IX.

CONDITIONS AT ASTORIA.

Arrival Of The Tonquin - David Stuart's Expedition To Establish A New Trading Post - David Thompson Of The Northwest Company Comes Down The Columbia To Plant The British Flag At The Mouth Of That River, But Is Too Late - Disaster To The Tonquin And The Murder Of Her Crew By Indians - Mr. Lewis' Terrible Revenge - Indians At Astoria Held In Check By Threats Of Spreading The Smallpox Among Them - Arrival Of The Beaver From New York - Departure Of Hunt For New Archangel And The Sandwich Islands - Treachery Of Mcdougal - Abandonment Of Astoria.

CHAPTER X.

GREAT OVERLAND TRAIL DISCOVERED.

Robert Stuart And His Little Band Of Six Pass Around The South End Of The Wind River Range During The Early Winter Of 1812 - Discovery Of The Sweetwater River And Passage Down That Stream - They Camp At Bessemer For The Winter - Leave Their Winter Camp For Fear Of Indians - Great Suffering Of The Party As They Journey Down The Platte - Discovery Of The Platte River Canon - Second Winter Encampment - Journey Down The River In The Spring Of 1813.

CHAPTER XI.

ASHLEY'S TRAPPERS IN WYOMING.

Trapping On The Yellowstone, Big Horn, Big Wind And Other Sources Of The Missouri - Names The Sweetwater And Changes The Name Spanish River To Green River - Employs Over 300 Trappers - His Expedition To Salt Lake - Marvelous Success As A Fur Trader - Makes A Fortune And Sells Out To Sublette, Campbell, Bridger And Others - His Speech To The Mountain Men - Changes The Character Of The Trapper By Mounting Him On Horseback - Life-long Personal Friend Of Every Trapper Who Shared With Him The Dangers Of The Mountains - Author's Tribute To The American Trapper.

CHAPTER XII.

FUR TRAPPERS AND TRADERS.

Capt. William Sublette Succeeds Gen. Ashley - He Organizes The Rocky Mountain Fur Company With Jedediah S. Smith, David E. Jackson And Others As Partners - Brilliant Campaigns Planned And Carried Out - Names Jackson's Hole And Lake - Introduces Wagons Into The Service In Wyoming - Capt. Nathaniel J. Wyeth - Battle Of Pierre's Hole - Death Of Vanderburg -Bridger's Affair With The Chief Of The Blackfeet - Success Attends The Fur Trade.

CHAPTER XIII.

CAPTAIN BONNEVILLE IN WYOMING.

Leaves Fort Osage With Twenty Wagons And One Hundred And Ten Men - Reaches The Platte River Below Grand Island - Scott's Bluff And Origin Of The Name - Follows The North Fork Of The Platte - Crosses Over To The Sweetwater - Experience Of Tom Cain - Rejoicings After Crossing The Continental Divide - Fontenelle Overtakes The Bonneville Party - Arrival At Green River - Fortifies His Camp - Free Trappers Visited By Blackfeet.

CHAPTER XIV.

BONNEVILLE SENDS OUT HIS TRAPPERS.

Various Detachments In The Field - Main Party Pass Through Jackson's Hole And Pierre's Hole On The Way To Solomon River - Meets The Nez Perces - His Opinion Of This Tribe - Experiences During The Winter - Rendezvous On Green River In 1833 - Stories Of His Several Leaders - Scenes At The Rendezvous - A Digression By The Author, In Which He Tells Of The Relations Between Captain Bonneville And Washington Irving - Valuable Services Rendered The Government.

CHAPTER XV.

BONNEVILLE LEAVES WYOMING.

Firs Collected, Convoyed To The Big Horn And Shipped By Bull Boats - Interesting - Dangers And Difficulties Of The Return Trip - Discovery Of Big Hot Spring Near Present Site Of Fort Washakie - Captain Bonneville Attempts To Work His Way Through The Wind River Range - Ascent Of Mount Bonneville - Toilsome Journey - Discovers A Community Of Beavers - Returns To His Caches On Green River By Way Of South Pass - Crosses The Wind River Range At The Head Of Green River - Many Incidents Of His Second Journey To The Columbia - Last Winter In The Mountains - Rendezvous In The Wind River Valley - Returns To Civilization.

CHAPTER XVI.

SKETCHES OF TRAPPERS AND TRADERS.

Trappers First Permanent Settlers In Wyoming - Personal Mention Jim Beckwourth - Nathaniel J. Wyeth - James Bridger - Kit Carson - Jedediah S. Smith - Joshua Pilcher - George W. Ebberts - Robert Newell - Captain William Sublette - Thomas Fitzpatrick - Fr App – Jervaise - Fontenelle - Jennings - Leroy - Ross - Sinclair Brothers – Dripps – Vasques – Uoodale – Pappen - Tulleck.

CHAPTER XVII.

OPENING OF FIRST HIGHWAY 1835-1843.

The Missionaries, Parker And Whitman, Pass Up The Platte, Sweetwater, And Reach Green River - Dr. Whitman Returns To The States - A Romantic Wedding Tour - First Two White Women In Wyoming - Remarkable Fourth Of July Celebration At South Pass - Grand Reception Given The Pioneer Women At Green River - Arrival In Oregon - Perilous Ride Of Dr. Whitmans Passes Through Wyoming With A Thousand Settlers - The Indian Massacre - The Hero Of Western Civilization.

CHAPTER XVIII.

FATHER PETER DE SMET.

His Arrival In Wyoming And Passage Up The North Platte And Sweetwater - The Flatheads Meet Him At Green River - Wonderful Interest Shown By The Indians In This Priest - He Tells Of His Experiences And Future Labors - Many Visits To Wyoming - Incident Among The Crows - Supposed Knowledge Of Gold In The Big Horn Mountains - His Death At St. Louis - What Is Thought Of Father De Smet In Wyoming.

CHAPTER XIX.

FREMONT'S EXPLORATIONS IN WYOMING.

The First Military Expedition To Visit Our State - The Main Detachment Follows The North Platte To Fort Laramie - Fremont With A Small Party Visits Fort St. Vrain And Passes North To Fort Laramie - Description Of The Fort As It Appeared In 1842 - Indians Invite Them To Partake Of A Dog Feast - Indian Chiefs Warn The Party That If They Go Further West, Will Be Killed - Fremont's Speech Of Defiance - Expedition Goes Forward - Observations Regarding Formations, Soil, Climate, Etc.

CHAPTER XX.

FREMONT'S EXPLORATIONS IN WYOMING—[continued.]

Meets A Band Op Ogalalla Sioux - Discouraging Reports Of The Condition Op The Country - Severe Drought and A Grasshopper Plague - Advised To Give Up The Expedition - Boldly Pushes Forward - Journey Up The Sweetwater - Crosses South Pass - Penetrates The Wind River Range - Climbs Fremont's Peak - The Return Journey - Engraves A Cross On Independence Rock - More Carefully Explores The North Platte - Returns To Fort Laramie - Follows The Platte To The Missouri - Goes Down The Missouri In A Ten-oared Boat - Arrives At St. Louis.

CHAPTER XXI.

FREMONT'S SECOND EXPEDITION THROUGH WYOMING.

The Start From The Missouri - Follow The Kansas River - Command Divided - Explorations In Colorado - Two Divisions Meet At Fort St. Vrain -Twenty-five Men With The Baggage Go By Way Of Fort Laramie To Fort Hall - Fremont And Thirteen Men Explore Laramie Plains And Proceed Westward To Eastern Rim Of Red Desert - Proceed North To Sweetwater - Journey To Bear River - Explore Great Salt Lake - Join Balance Of Command At Fort Hall - Explorations In Oregon - Winter Campaign In The Mountains Of California - Third Exploring Expedition And Experiences In California - Fourth Exploring Expedition - Great Suffering Of The Party and Eleven- Deaths - Fremont's Public Services.

CHAPTER XXII.

DISCOVERIES IN YELLOWSTONE PARK.

Joseph Meek Strays into The Park In 1829, And Tells What He Saw - An Unknown Explorer In 1833 Writes The First Description Of The Geysers - Jim Bridger In 1850 Takes His Friends To See The Curiosities At The Head Of The Yellowstone, Which He Had Been Telling About For Twenty-five Years - Reynolds Expedition Of 1860 is Prevented By Deep Snow From Entering The Geyser Country - Numerous Prospectors See The Thermal Springs And Geysers - The Folsom Expedition Of 1869 - Organization Of The Washburn Expedition In 1870.

CHAPTER XXIII.

HISTORY OF FORT LARAMIE.

A Noted Post In The Wilderness - Story Of Jacques Laramie - Naming Laramie River - Robert Campbell Builds Fort William - Name Changed To Fort Laramie - Purchased By Milton Sublette, Jim Bridger And Others - Sold To American Fur Company - Becomes The Capital Of The Wilderness - Palmy Days At The Old Trading Post - Important Station On The Overland Trail - Closing Days Of The Fur Traders At Fort Laramie.

CHAPTER XXIV.

HISTORY OF FORT LARAMIE—[continued.]

Purchase Of Fort Laramie By United States Government - The Price Paid - The First Garrison – Reinforcements - Rebuilding Of The Fort - Scurvy Attacks The Soldiers - Cholera At Scott's Bluffs - Captain Ketchum Relieves Major Sanderson As Commander - American Fur Company Retires Down The River To Scott's Bluffs - Emigrant Trains - Indians For The Most Part Peaceable - Valuable Services Of American Fur Company To Emigrants - Treaty Of 1851.

CHAPTER XXV.

HISTORY OF FORT LARAMIE—[continued.]

Unpleasant Side Of The Service At Fort Laramie - Shut Up In The Wilderness - Gloom And Despondency - Insolent Savages - Indians Severely Punished - Lieutenant Grattan And Thirty Soldiers Massacred - Sioux Tribes On The Warpath - Fort Laramie Reinforced - Major Hoffman Takes Command - The Sioux Make War On Emigrant Trains - Sir George Gore's Hunting Expedition - Bridger Becomes Guide - Terrible Conditions Along The Overland Trail - Government Urged To Protect Emigrants - War Department Aroused At Last.

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE OREGON EMIGRATION.

Dr. Elijah White's Train Of 1842 - Trials And Tribulations By The Way - Fitzpatrick The Guide - Emigrants Of 1844 - Extravagant Prices At Fort Laramie That Year - 1475 People Go To Oregon In 1844 - Senator Benton's Prophecy - The Business Of The Trail In 1845 - The Rush In 1846 - Indians Say White Men Are As Numerous As The Leaves Of The Forest - Scenes At Fort Laramie - Increasing Emigration Of 1847-8 - The " Days Of FortyNine."

CHAPTER XXVII.

MORMON EMIGRATION.

Brigham Young's Pioneer Train - An Incident On The Eastern Border Of Wyoming - Arrival At Fort Laramie - Crossing The Platte Above Caspar With Boats And Rafts - The Train Crosses South Pass - Reaches The Big Sandy And Green River - Jim Bridger Meets Brigham Young - The Stop At Fort Bridger - Train Passes Out Of Wyoming - Arrival In Salt Lake Valley - Incidents Connected With The Mormon Settlement - Character Of Brigham Young.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

HISTORY OF FORT BRIDGER.

First Fa Trappers' And Traders' Rendezvous - Bridger Builds A Blockhouse - The Bridger And Vasquez Partnership - The Mormons Settle Around The Fort In 1853 - Rebuilt In 1855 - Occupied By Government Troops, Winter Of 1857-8 - Troops On Short Rations - Captain Marcy's Winter Journey - Fort Rebuilt By The Government - Practically Abandoned In 1861 - Judge Carter Organizes A Company Of Mountaineers To Garrison The Fort - California And Nevada Volunteers Occupy The Post From 1862 To 1866 - Arrival Of United States Troops Replace Volunteers - Troops Protect Overland Stages And Engineers Of Union Pacific Railway - Abandoned In 1890.

CHAPTER XXIX.

EVENTS] ON THE OVERLAND.

What Came Of Fremont's Explorations - Hockaday And Liggett's Monthly Stage From The Missouri To Salt Lake - Fort Kearney, South Pass And Honey Lake Wagon Road - Winter Camp In The Wind River Valley - Colonel F. W. Lander And The Shoshone Indians - Russell, Majors And Waddell, The Freighters - Daily Stage Line - The Pony Express - Fight Between The Shoshones And Sioux - Death Of The War Chief Washakie's Eldest Son - Construction Of The Telegraph Line.

CHAPTER XXX.

CHANGING THE OVERLAND TRAIL.

Ben Holliday Becomes Proprietor Of The Stage Line - Shoshones Capture All The Horses For A Distance Of 200 Miles - The Mormon Battalion - Arrival Of Volunteer Troops - The Emigrant Road Expedition - Colonel P. Edward Connor Takes Charge Of The Military District Of Utah - Fort Douglass Located - Fort Bridger Garrisoned - Mormon Effort To Have Troops Removed From Fort Douglas - Colonel Connor's Letter To The War Department - Removal Of The Stages To The Laramie Plains And Bridger Pass Route - Whisky Gap Named - Thorough Equipment Of The Holliday Line.

CHAPTER XXXI.

INDIAN DEPREDATIONS ON THE OVERLAND.

Colonel Connor's Winter Campaign - Battle Of Bear River - 224 Indians Killed - Colonel Connor Made A Brigadier General - Southern Utes Go On The War Path - Additional Troops Asked For - General Connor Makes A Statement To The War Department Regarding The Mormons - Major Wynkoop Ordered To The Overland Trail - Hostiles Attack Sweetwater Station - Utes Attack Stage Station On Laramie Plains - The Bannocks And Snakes Want Peace - Wyoming Attached To The Military District Of Colorado - Utes Sue For Peace In Utah - The Career Of The Notorious Joseph A. Slade In Wyoming - His Execution By Vigilantes In Montana.

CHAPTER XXXII.

INDIAN TROUBLES ON THE OVERLAND.

Events Of 1864 - A Glance Backward - The Crow Country - The Crow Character - What Robert Campbell Says Of Them - The Bozeman Road - The Man Who Laid It Out And His Death - Overland Stage Company Complains - Gen. Connor's Policy With Indians Successful - Return Of Stolen Property - Gen. Connor Ordered To Protect The Overland From Salt Lake To Fort Kearney - Mormons Attempt To Have Camp Douglas Removed - Gen. Connor's Trouble With The Mormons - The Outlook For 1865.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

THE BLOODY YEAR ON THE PLAINS.

Indians Become Experts In Killing And Robbing - Hostilities Open On January 7 - Captain O'brien's Desperate Fight Against Overwhelming Numbers - The Burning Of Julesburg Station - The Attack On Mud Springs Station - Colonel Collins Brings Relief - Fight At Rush Creek - Destruction Of The Telegraph Line - Colonel Collins Returns To Fort Laramie - His Recommendations To The Government - Organization Of The Department Of The Plains - General Connor Placed In Command - Indians Attack Deer Creek Station - Colonel Moonlight's Expedition To Wind River - Renewed Trouble At Julesburg - Capture Of Two Face And Blackfoot - Their Execution At Fort Laramie - Rescue Of Mrs. Eubanks - The Schuyler Colfax Party.

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE BLOODY YEAR ON THE PLAINS—[continued.]

Headquarters Removed From Denver To Julesburg - Colonel Moonlight Places Additional Troops On The Telegraph Line - District Inspectors Appointed - Commanders Of The Different Posts - Indians Attack Rock Ridge And Sweetwater Stations - Attack And Burning Of St. Mary's Station - Affair At Platte Bridge - Trouble At Sage Creek, Pine Grove And Bridger Pass Stations - Second Attack On Sage Creek Station - The Stage Company Refuses To Run Coaches - Soldiers Mutiny - So-called Friendly Indians Mutiny - Colonel Moonlight's Troubles - General Connor Getting Ready Tor A Campaign On Powder River - Troops Delayed By Bad Roads - Additional Troubles On The Telegraph Line And The Stage Route Across Laramie Plains - Niobrara And Montana Wagon Road.

CHAPTER XXXV.

THE BLOODY YEAR ON THE PLAINS—[continued].

The Massacre At Platte Bridge - Lieutenant Caspar W. Collins Goes Out To Insure The Safety Of A Wagon Train And Is Killed Together With Eight Of His Men And Seven More Wounded - Twenty-one Men Belonging To A Wagon Train Are All Killed But Three - 3,000 Indians Threaten Platte Bridge - How Fort Caspar Received Its Name - Able Letter On The Indian Question By Major General John Pope - Indian Affairs Discussed By The Author-mistakes Made By The Government In The Management Of Indians - General Connor Is Given A New Command - General Wheaton Assumes Command Of The District Of Nebraska With Headquarters At Fort Laramie - Reduction Of The Army On The Plains - Its Effect On The Savages - The Much Talked Of Peace Conference To Be Held At Fort Laramie, May, 1866.

CHAPTER XXXVI.

BLOODY YEAR ON THE PLAINS—[continued].

Troops Operating Against Savages - Divided Into Small Detachments - Redmen Have Things Their Own Way - Indian Affairs And The Indian Question - The Powder River Campaign Discussed And Determined By Generals Pope, Dodge And Connor - General Connor Issues His Instructions To Colonel Cole And Makes Known His Plan Of Campaign - Departure Of The Expedition - Captain George F. Price Left In Command At Fort Laramie - Pope Abolishes The District Of The Plains - Assigns Connor To The District Of Utah -General F. Wheaton Assigned To The District Of Nebraska With Headquarters At Fort Laramie - Indian Depredations On The Telegraph And Mail Line After General Connor's Departure For Powder River.

CHAPTER XXXVII.

REPORT OF THE POWDER RIVER EXPEDITION.

Captain Palmer's Diary - The Army Of Invasion Starts North - Crossing The Platte At La Bonta's Ranch - Incidents By The Way - Building Fort Connor - A Running Fight - Twenty-four Indians Killed - Skirmish - Visits Lake De Smet - Something About Jim Bridger - Battle Of Tongue River - Exciting Scenes On The Field Of Carnage - The March Down Tongue River - Anxiety About Colonel Cole's Command - Scouring The Country For Indians - Colonel Cole Heard From And His Troops Reported In A Starving Condition - He Fails To Meet General Connor At The Appointed Place Of Rendzevous - Return Op The Various Commands To Fort Laramie.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

THRILLING EVENTS ON THE BOZEMAN ROAD.

Mountain District Organized - Colonel H. B. Carrington Assumes Command - Expedition Moves From Fort Kearney - The Peace Conference At Fort Laramie - Red Cloud's Position And Brave Words - The March To Fort Reno - The Building Of The New Fort - Selecting The Site For Fort Phil. Kearney - Erection Of The Post Commenced - Conference With The Hostiles - First Encounter With The Savages - Attack On Train At Clear Creek - Lieutenant Daniels Killed - Fort C. F. Smith Located - General Hazen Inspects The Posts - Fort Phil. Kearney Practically Completed October 31ST.

CHAPTER XXXIX.

THRILLING EVENTS ON THE BOZEMAN ROAD.—[continued].

Description Of Fort Phil. Kearney - Colonel Carrington's Address And Hoisting The Flag - A Night Attack - The Garrison Harassed By Night And By Day - Fight Of December 6th, Lieutenant Bingham And Sergeant Bowers Killed - The Fetterman Massacre, Eighty-one Brave Men Meet Death - Scenes At The Fort - Burial Of The Dead - John Philip's Daring Ride For Help - His Arrival At Fort Laramie - Reinforcements Go To Fort Phil. Kearney - Suffering Of The Troops From Cold, On The Journey - A Review Of The Causes Which Led To The Massacre.

CHAPTER XL.

RED CLOUD CONTINUES THE WAR.

1867.

Government Wants Peace - Red Cloud Jubilant - Brigadier General Wessels Takes Command Of Fort Phil. Kearney - Carrington Goes To Fort Mcpherson - General P. St. George Cooke Removed And General Augur Assumes Command Of The Department Of The Platte - Report Of Congressional Committee On The Fetterman Massacre - Red Cloud With A Large Force Hovers About Fort Phil. Kearney - Makes Preparations To Storm The Fort - Major Powell's Desperate Fight With Red Cloud - Indians Severely Beaten - Recruits His Forces From Other Tribes - Spotted Tail Punishes Deserters - Building Of Fort Fetterman - Fort D. A. Russell Located.

CHAPTER XLI.

MISTAKEN POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT.

1868.

Indians Continue Hostilities - Record For The Month Of March Peace Commissioners Assemble At Fort Laramie - Red Cloud Agrees To Terms But Does Not Sign - Six Hundred Of His Warriors Dissatisfied And Withdraw - The Marauding Rands Continue The War - Forts Reno, Phil. Kearney And C. F. Smith Abandoned - Several Regiments Withdrawn From The Plains - General Sheridan Points Out The Mistakes Of The Peace Policy Of The Government - Indian Troubles Renewed - Schuyler Colfax's Message To The War Department - Governor Hunt Of Colorado Asks For Arms - General Sherman's Reply - Generals Sheridan And Custer Take The Field - Text Of The Sioux Treaty - Building Of Fort Fred. Steele.

CHAPTER XLII.

THE TERRITORY OF WYOMING.

1868.

The Building Of The Railroad Necessitates: A Government - The Name Wyoming And Its Origin - The First, Bill In Congress - Dr. Hiram Latham Sent To Washington As An 'agent Of The People - Circular Distributed Among The Senators And Members Of The House Of Representatives - Bill Passes The Senate - Difficulties Encountered In The House - It Was Finally Passed And Signed By The President - Territorial Officers Nominated By President Johnson But Not Confirmed By The The Senate Bill Delayed Until Gen. Grant Becomes President - The Act Organizing The Territory.

CHAPTER XLIII.

SOUTH PASS GOLD DISCOVERIES.

1842-1869.

A Georgian Makes The First Discovery In 1842 - Thirteen Years Later Forty Men Arrived And Made Rich Discoveries - Next Year They Are Driven Out Of The Country By United States Troops - The Attempts At Mining From 1858 To 1864 - Lieut. Brown's Discoveries - Maj. Baldwin Outfits Two Prospectors - Organization Of The Lincoln Mining District - Discovery Of The Carissa in 1876 - Killing Of Capt. Lawrence And Tony Shields By Indians - Mad Rush To South Pass In 1868 - Numerous Rich Mines Discovered That Year - Attack By Indians - Building Of Saw Mills And Quartz Mills - Discoveries Of 1869 - More Indian Depredations - Murders Of The Year - Pioneers Of The Camps.

CHAPTER XLIV.

BUILDING THE UNION PACIFIC.

National Surveys - Chartered By Congress - Subsidy In Lands - Government Bonds Loaned - The Road A National Necessity - Patriotic Private Citizens Furnish Money And Construct The Road - The Government Secures Great Benefits, For Which It Pays Practically Nothing - Incidents In The History Of Construction - Marvelous Speed Of The Tracklayers - A Well Organized Army Of Builders - Building Across Wyoming - Bear River Riot - Close Of 1868.

CHAPTER XLV.

PIONEERS AND ORIGIN OF NAMES.

August Lucius, First Government Interpreter At Fort Laramie - Sergeant Leodiger Schneider - Ward And Guerrier And Other Post Traders At Fort Laramie - James Baker - Origin Of The Name Independence Rock - Richard Wootten In Wyoming - Origin Of The Name Platte River - B. F. Lowe, Henry Perri - Old Trappers And Traders - Origin Of Names Of Big Horn River And Mountains, Big Wind River, Wind River Range, Shoshone Range, Popo Agie Rivers, Teton Range And Peaks - Climbing The Grand Teton.



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